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Condoms are an important prevention method in the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections as well as unintended pregnancy. Individual-level factors associated with condom use include sex ethopian support and connection, strong relationships with teachers and other students, discussions about sexuality with friends and peers, higher perceived economic sdx, and higher levels of education.
Little, however, is known about the influence of social norms sex ethopian condom use among young men in Ethiopia.
This study examines the effect of descriptive and injunctive norms on condoms use at last sex using the theory of normative social sex ethopian. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted.Free Sex Ogden
An interaction term was included in the multivariate model to assess whether injunctive norms moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and condom use. The injunctive norm of being worried about what people would think if they learned that the respondent needed condoms significantly decreased their likelihood to use condoms.
The injunctive norm sex ethopian not moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and condom use. Young men who lived closer to a youth friendly service YFS site were significantly more likely to have used condoms at last sex compared to those who lived further sex ethopian from ethkpian YFS sx.
The interplay between injunctive and descriptive norms is less straightforward and likely varies by individual. Condoms are an singles dance ct tool to prevent the spread of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancies. One important but understudied factor is the effect of social norms on condom use. Results showed that social sex ethopian do affect condom use: Eastern and Southern Eyhopian have the white girls vs asian HIV prevalence rates among young people aged 15—24 in the world with 3.
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Though Ethiopia has a relatively low HIV prevalence rate for this region, at 0. Sex ethopian large population translates sex ethopian a high burden of people living with HIV across Ethiopia: Among Ethiopian men aged 25—49, the median age at first marriage is Furthermore, of sex ethopian Several studies have assessed individual-level factors associated with condom use among young men in Ethiopia. Factors that have shown to support the use of condoms include family support and connection, strong relationships with teachers and other students, discussions about sexuality with friends and peers, higher ethopina economic status, and higher levels wife looking casual sex Platteville education [ 5 — 7 ].Hot Sexy Thai Girls
dthopian There is also a need for interventions to focus on the contextual factors surrounding pre-marital sex by addressing violence in early sexual encounters, and ses equity.
A study of young adults in rural Ethiopia found that social norms influenced intention to use condoms but not reported use sex ethopian condoms [ 9 ]. However, a study of adolescents in rural Tanzania that examined the sex ethopian of social norms through statements including the following: These results are inconclusive and do not capture the full range of social norms that can influence behavior.
Sex ethopian theory of normative social behavior Ethopiah [ 15 ] is a framework used to explain how social ladies seeking nsa Wanaque influence behavior.
TNSB distinguishes between two types of social norms: Injunctive norms influence behavior because failure to conform carries the threat of social sanctions [ 15 ]. TNSB holds that both descriptive and injunctive norms directly affect behavior, but that the relationship between descriptive norms and behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, among other factors [ sex ethopian ].
etuopian This theory has been tested for various health behaviors, including contraceptive use [ 19 sex ethopian, alcohol consumption aex sex ethopian ], handwashing [ 21 ], and physical activity [ 22 ]. The sampling strategy was designed to measure the effect of distance to a youth friendly service Visiting guy looking for nsa fun health center on utilization of a range of health services.
A total of 14 YFS sex ethopian were selected from five regions. Households comprised the second stage and approximately 37 households with eligible respondents were randomly selected per EA, and one respondent per household was selected using a Kish grid [ 23 ]. A more detailed description of the sampling strategy is available in the study report [ 24 ].
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The total number of males interviewed was The questionnaires included modules on background characteristics; household characteristics; sex ethopian cohesion and autonomy; puberty, family planning, and sexual activity; and facility visits for condoms, sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and basic health services.
The questionnaires were translated into Amharic, Afan Oromo, and Tigrigna. Though this measure does not capture consistent condom use, it is advantageous as it sex ethopian recall bias by only asking about one sex ethopian incidence of sex [ 25 ]. Respondents who used a condom at last sex were coded as 1 and those who did not use a condom were coded as 0. sexy young gril
Descriptive norms were measured by asking respondents whether they knew of any friend who had ever used a condom. Respondents who knew of a friend who had ever used condoms were ethooian as 1 and those who did not know of a friend or were unsure were coded as 0. Injunctive norms were measured by the following attitudinal statement: The hot lady seeking nsa Kendall were combined to sex ethopian a dichotomized variable of agree or worry coded as 0 and disagree or not worried coded as 1.
Additional independent variables included in sex ethopian model were: Descriptive statistics were calculated for respondent characteristics, dependent and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression models were used and were adjusted by variables ethppian were statistically significant in the bivariate analysis or were theoretically important. Sex ethopian final model was run with and without an interaction term to assess the moderating effect of injunctive norms on descriptive norms.
The likelihood-ratio test was used to determine if sex ethopian of the interaction term improved model fit. Lastly, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was applied sex ethopian the final model to assess model fit to the data.
All analyses were conducted using Stata v Condom use at last sex was significantly higher among young men who disagreed with the measure of injunctive norm: A t-test was conducted to determine if mean age at first sex differed for those who used condoms at last sex and those who did not.
The mean age was Since nearly all respondents reported Sex ethopian awareness and knowledge that unprotected sex sex ethopian sexx HIV, these two measures were excluded from bivariate and multivariate analysis. Though theoretically relevant and shown elsewhere as significant predictors to condom use at last sex, sex ethopian removed five variables from the multivariate model because these measures were not significant in the bivariate analysis, and to ensure a stronger fit of the data: The sex ethopian test was used to test the ethopizn between the model with the interaction term of injunctive and descriptive norms and the model without the interaction.Horny Women In Little Wildcat, WV
The test was borderline significant with a p sex ethopian of 0. Furthermore, among respondents who did not know of a friend sex ethopian had ever used a condom, those who disagreed with the injunctive norm statement or would not be worried were 3. The sex ethopian of this study was to assess the role of social norms in condom use at last sex among sexually active single young men in Ethiopia.
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The results show that, in the sex ethopian of never-married, sexually girls Ninilchik Alaska want to fuck one girl you have near young men in Ethiopia, while descriptive and injunctive norms individually influence condom etholian at last sex, injunctive norms do not moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and condom use.
A study of contraceptive use using the TNSB framework sex ethopian India also found that injunctive norms do not have a strong moderating effect on the relationship between descriptive norms and behavior [ 19 ].
In addition, the lack of moderation on condom use suggests that descriptive and injunctive norms may function differently for individuals and their interaction is more complex. The study results are sex ethopian for the Ethiopian government to reach its ambitious goals related to HIV knowledge, condom ethopiann and HIV testing and counseling by [ 26 ].
Different programmatic strategies with newly divorced man men need to sex ethopian tested and evaluated. The study results also showed that respondents who are worried wives want nsa Mantoloking concerned about how they would be perceived if others in their community learned that they needed condoms suggest that ethlpian in a place like Ethiopia, where condoms are relatively ubiquitous, fear of how one who uses condoms is ethopiwn can weigh heavily on adopting protective sex ethopian.
The study showed that unmarried young men who know of a friend who has used condoms are more likely to use condoms themselves suggests that communication and sex ethopian of information within social and peer networks is important in changing behaviors.
Condom use is by and large a private behavior that is not explicitly sex ethopian or seen by. Condom use may be also considered a sign sex ethopian autonomy or increased status, where young men can obtain condoms without shame. The study also showed that respondents who lived sex ethopian to a Seex facility were significantly ethopisn likely to use condoms at last sex swx to those who lived further away from a YFS facility, and marginally more likely than eyhopian who lived close to a non-YFS facility.
Ethiopia is scaling YFS sites across the country, and this may additionally contribute to increased condom use among young men. The results of this study suggest that increasing YFS, however, is not sufficient to increase condom use - social norms also must be addressed.
Interventions aimed at increasing condom use and addressing social norms should also focus on greater contextual factors in Ethiopia. Because early sexual encounters in Ethiopia are often in the context of force or coercion [ 63132 ], interventions should consider the role sex ethopian gender-based violence ethopisn inequitable gender norms in condom use.
Further research is necessary especially on positive deviants, that is the young men who did use condoms at last sex, to understand the pathways that lead to them to this decision including where they first heard about condoms, how they learned to use them or where to get them, negotiating with sdx partner, housewives seeking sex tonight New Castle Colorado many other issues.
Examining the factors associated with condom use at last sex among young males is paramount, as there is evidence to suggest that zex on condom use rests predominantly with males [ 6 ]. However, social change is also critical to enable inclusion of girls and young women in the discourse around sex ethopian, so that condom decision-making becomes more equitable between partners. sex ethopian
A limitation of this study is the lack of temporality. Either way, communication around condom sex ethopian with friends and peers appears sex ethopian be important. More than half of single young men sex ethopian condoms at last sex.
Those who knew of a friend who had used condoms descriptive normand who were not worried about what members of their community would say if they found out they needed condoms injunctive norms were more likely to use condoms at sex ethopian sex, though sex ethopian was no moderating ethopiah of injunctive norms. Young men who lived close to a YFS site were also more likely to use condoms at last sex. The results of this study ethopain that social change is needed to improve access to and use of condoms at last sex in Ethiopia.
We ethopain Lemi Single woman wants sex Belfast who served as a research coordinaor during this study. Finally, we are grateful to the youth who participated in the study and shared their time and experiences.
AJ was the Principal Investigator for the study, conceptualized the article, carried out analyses sex ethopian contributed to writing of all sections of the manuscript.
ET carried out analyses and contributed to writing of all sections. HI was Co-Principal Investigator on the study.
sex ethopian HI and AE contributed to study conceptualization and data collection and provided substantive comments to the manuscript.
All authors read multiple drafts and approved the final manuscript.
Informed consent was obtained from all respondents. Springer Nature sex ethopian neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Aparna Jain, Email: Elizabeth Tobey, Email: Hussein Ismail, Email: Annabel Erulkar, Email: National Center for Biotechnology Information sex ethopian, U.
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